Saturday, March 8, 2014

Tear-Drop RBCs ( Dacrocytes)

Tear-Drop RBCs (Dacrocytes)


Background Information of Tear-Drop Cells (Darcocytes)

Darcocytes or the more commonly known tear-drop cells is a type of poikilocytosis (variability in RBC shapes). As one side of the RBC is "pinched", it forms a tear-drop-like shape and thus appear to be smaller than their normal counterparts and usually patients with these phenomenon will have low MCHC - low hemoglobin (hypochromia). If present in large numbers on a PBF, these conditions are pathologic and usually indicate significant dysplastic function of the bone marrow and a bone marrow biopsy is definitely warranted.

Clinical Significance
 
Excessive presence of these tear-drop RBCs on PBFs is highly indicative of chronic myelofibrosis. Chronic myelofibrosis is found in patients that have dysfunctional or diseased bone marrow that leads to a severe type of anemia call Myelophthisic anemia. This condition is caused by the displacement of hemopoietic bone-marrow tissue into the peripheral blood by fibrosis, tumors or granulomas. Patients that sufer from this condition will suffer from Pancytopenia is a medical condition in which there is a reduction in the number of RBCs, WBCs and platelets.
 
Cellular Description

The hall mark of spherocytes is the presence of numerous small RBCs that appear synonymous to a sphere-like shape without a visible central pallor and is stained more densely than their normal counterparts. The denser staining is due to the normal concentration of hemoglobin being "concentrated" due to the shrinkage of the RBCs.

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