Background Information of Hypersegmented Neutrophils
As mentioned earlier in the earliest introduction to neutrophils, normal polymorphonuclear segmented neutrophils usually contain 3 to 5 segments. Classically, the number of segments in the nucleus of neutrophils corresponds with their age and maturity (increase as it age/mature).
Presence of hypersegmented neutrophils have classically been suggestive to be a pathognomonic of the class of anemias called megaloblastic anemias. Megaloblastic anemia is characterized by the failure of bone marrow blood-forming cells to make adequate DNA, often due to deficiency in Vitamin B2 or folate , resulting in the increased in lifespan and maturity of neutrophils and hence reflecting the segments of the nucleus.
Hypersegmented neutrophils may also be observed in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), infection and in heavy metal poisoning (DNA-replication poisons).
The size of hypersegmented neutrophils is slightly bigger than their matured segmented neutrophils counterparts with their segmented nucleus stained dark purple. The major difference between the 2 is that the hypersegmented neutrophils contains 6 or more segments in their nucleus within their pink cytoplasm.